Clinical recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance mapping of T1, T2, T2* and extracellular volume: A consensus statement by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) endorsed by the European Association for Cardiovascular Imagi
Parametric mapping techniques provide a non-invasive tool for quantifying tissue alterations in myocardial disease in those eligible for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Parametric mapping with CMR now permits the routine spatial visualization and quantification of changes in myocardial composition based on changes in T1, T2, and T2*(star) relaxation times and extracellular volume (ECV). These changes include specific disease pathways related to mainly intracellular disturbances of the cardiomyocyte (e.g., iron overload, or glycosphingolipid accumulation in Anderson-Fabry disease); extracellular disturbances in the myocardial interstitium (e.g., myocardial fibrosis or cardiac amyloidosis from accumulation of collagen or amyloid proteins, respectively); or both (myocardial edema with increased intracellular and/or extracellular water). Parametric mapping promises improvements in patient care through advances in quantitative diagnostics, inter- and intra-patient comparability, and relatedly improvements in treatment. There is a multitude of technical approaches and potential applications. This document provides a summary of the existing evidence for the clinical value of parametric mapping in the heart as of mid 2017, and gives recommendations for practical use in different clinical scenarios for scientists, clinicians, and CMR manufacturers.
Background: Left atrial ( LA ) enlargement is a marker for increased risk of atrial fibrillation ( AF ). However, LA remodeling is a complex process that is poorly understood, and LA geometric remodeling may also be associated with the development of AF . We sought to determine whether LA spherical remodeling or its temporal change predict late AF recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation ( PVI ). Methods and Results: Two hundred twenty-seven consecutive patients scheduled for their first PVI for paroxysmal or persistent AF who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance before and within 6 months after PVI were retrospectively identified. The LA sphericity index was computed as the ratio of the measured LA maximum volume to the volume of a sphere with maximum LA length diameter. During mean follow-up of 25 months, 88 patients (39%) experienced late recurrence of AF. Multivariable Cox regression analyses identified an increased pre- PVI LA sphericity index as an independent predictor of late AF recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.62, P=0.009). Patients in the highest LA sphericity index tertile were at highest risk of late recurrence (highest versus lowest: 59% versus 28%; P<0.001). The integration of the LA sphericity index to the LA minimum volume index and passive emptying fraction provided important incremental prognostic information for predicting late AF recurrence post PVI (categorical net reclassification improvement, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.69, P=0.001). Conclusions: The assessment of pre- PVI LA geometric remodeling provides incremental prognostic information regarding late AF recurrence and may be useful to identify those for whom PVI has reduced success or for whom more aggressive ablation or medications may be useful.