Clinical recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance mapping of T1, T2, T2* and extracellular volume: A consensus statement by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) endorsed by the European Association for Cardiovascular Imagi
Parametric mapping techniques provide a non-invasive tool for quantifying tissue alterations in myocardial disease in those eligible for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Parametric mapping with CMR now permits the routine spatial visualization and quantification of changes in myocardial composition based on changes in T1, T2, and T2*(star) relaxation times and extracellular volume (ECV). These changes include specific disease pathways related to mainly intracellular disturbances of the cardiomyocyte (e.g., iron overload, or glycosphingolipid accumulation in Anderson-Fabry disease); extracellular disturbances in the myocardial interstitium (e.g., myocardial fibrosis or cardiac amyloidosis from accumulation of collagen or amyloid proteins, respectively); or both (myocardial edema with increased intracellular and/or extracellular water). Parametric mapping promises improvements in patient care through advances in quantitative diagnostics, inter- and intra-patient comparability, and relatedly improvements in treatment. There is a multitude of technical approaches and potential applications. This document provides a summary of the existing evidence for the clinical value of parametric mapping in the heart as of mid 2017, and gives recommendations for practical use in different clinical scenarios for scientists, clinicians, and CMR manufacturers.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated a strong association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and epicardial fat around the left atrium (LA). We sought to assess whether epicardial fat volume around the LA is associated with AF, and to determine the additive value of LA-epicardial fat measurements to LA structural remodeling for identifying patients with AF using 3-dimensional multi-echo Dixon fat-water separated cardiovascular magnetic resonance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 105 subjects were studied: 53 patients with a history of AF and 52 age-matched patients with other cardiovascular diseases but no history of AF. The 3-dimensional multi-echo Dixon fat-water separated sequence was performed for LA-epicardial fat measurements. AF patients had significantly greater LA-epicardial fat (28.9±12.3 and 14.2±7.3 mL for AF and non-AF, respectively; <0.001) and LA volume (110.8±38.2 and 89.7±30.3 mL for AF and non-AF, respectively; =0.002). LA-epicardial fat adjusted for LA volume was still higher in patients with AF compared with those without AF (<0.001). LA-epicardial fat and hypertension were independently associated with the risk of AF (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.10%-1.25%, <0.001, and odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.17%-9.27%, =0.03, respectively). In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for body surface area, LA-epicardial fat remained significant and an increase per mL was associated with a 42% increase in the odds of AF presence (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.23%-1.62%, <0.001). Combined assessment of LA-epicardial fat and LA volume provided greater discriminatory performance for detecting AF than LA volume alone (c-statistic=0.88 and 0.74, respectively, DeLong test; <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance 3-dimensional Dixon-based LA-epicardial fat volume is significantly increased in AF patients. LA-epicardial fat measured by 3-dimensional Dixon provides greater performance for detecting AF beyond LA structural remodeling.
PURPOSE: To develop a black blood heart-rate adaptive T -prepared balanced steady-state free-precession (BEATS) sequence for myocardial T mapping. METHODS: In BEATS, blood suppression is achieved by using a combination of preexcitation and double inversion recovery pulses. The timing and flip angles of the preexcitation pulse are auto-calculated in each patient based on heart rate. Numerical simulations, phantom studies, and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of BEATS. BEATS T maps were acquired in 36 patients referred for clinical cardiac MRI and in 1 swine with recent myocardial infarction. Two readers assessed all images acquired in patients to identify the presence of artifacts associated with slow blood flow. RESULTS: Phantom experiments showed that the BEATS sequence provided accurate T values over a wide range of simulated heart rates. Black blood myocardial T maps were successfully obtained in all subjects. No significant difference was found between the average T measurements obtained from the BEATS and conventional bright-blood T ; however, there was a decrease in precision using the BEATS sequence. A suppression of the blood pool resulted in sharper definition of the blood-myocardium border and reduced partial voluming effect. The subjective assessment showed that 16% (18 out of 108) of short-axis slices have residual blood artifacts (12 in the apical slice, 4 in the midventricular slice, and 2 in the basal slice). CONCLUSION: The BEATS sequence yields dark blood myocardial T maps with better definition of the blood-myocardium border. Further studies are warranted to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of black blood T mapping.
Wearable and implantable devices require conductive, stretchable and biocompatible materials. However, obtaining composites that simultaneously fulfil these requirements is challenging due to a trade-off between conductivity and stretchability. Here, we report on Ag–Au nanocomposites composed of ultralong gold-coated silver nanowires in an elastomeric block-copolymer matrix. Owing to the high aspect ratio and percolation network of the Ag–Au nanowires, the nanocomposites exhibit an optimized conductivity of 41,850 S cm−1 (maximum of 72,600 S cm−1). Phase separation in the Ag–Au nanocomposite during the solvent-drying process generates a microstructure that yields an optimized stretchability of 266% (maximum of 840%). The thick gold sheath deposited on the silver nanowire surface prevents oxidation and silver ion leaching, making the composite biocompatible and highly conductive. Using the nanocomposite, we successfully fabricate wearable and implantable soft bioelectronic devices that can be conformally integrated with human skin and swine heart for continuous electrophysiological recording, and electrical and thermal stimulation.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are increasingly used to convert medical imaging studies into tangible (physical) models of individual patient anatomy, allowing physicians, scientists, and patients an unprecedented level of interaction with medical data. To date, virtually all 3D-printable medical data sets are created using traditional image thresholding, subsequent isosurface extraction, and the generation of .stl surface mesh file formats. These existing methods, however, are highly prone to segmentation artifacts that either over or underexaggerate the features of interest, thus resulting in anatomically inaccurate 3D prints. In addition, they often omit finer detailed structures and require time- and labor-intensive processes to visually verify their accuracy. To circumvent these problems, we present a bitmap-based multimaterial 3D printing workflow for the rapid and highly accurate generation of physical models directly from volumetric data stacks. This workflow employs a thresholding-free approach that bypasses both isosurface creation and traditional mesh slicing algorithms, hence significantly improving speed and accuracy of model creation. In addition, using preprocessed binary bitmap slices as input to multimaterial 3D printers allows for the physical rendering of functional gradients native to volumetric data sets, such as stiffness and opacity, opening the door for the production of biomechanically accurate models.
Low scar-to-blood contrast in late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MRI limits the visualization of scars adjacent to the blood pool. Nulling the blood signal improves scar detection but results in lack of contrast between myocardium and blood, which makes clinical evaluation of LGE images more difficult.
GB-LGE contrast is achieved through partial suppression of the blood signal using T2magnetization preparation between the inversion pulse and acquisition. The timing parameters of GB-LGE sequence are determined by optimizing a cost-function representing the desired tissue contrast. The proposed 3D GB-LGE sequence was evaluated using phantoms, human subjects (n = 45) and a swine model of myocardial infarction (n = 5). Two independent readers subjectively evaluated the image quality and ability to identify and localize scarring in GB-LGE compared to black-blood LGE (BB-LGE) (i.e., with complete blood nulling) and conventional (bright-blood) LGE.
GB-LGE contrast was successfully generated in phantoms and all in-vivo scans. The scar-to-blood contrast was improved in GB-LGE compared to conventional LGE in humans (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and in animals (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. -0.03 ± 0.2). In patients, GB-LGE detected more tissue scarring compared to BB-LGE and conventional LGE. The subjective scores of the GB-LGE ability for localizing LV scar and detecting papillary scar were improved as compared with both BB-LGE (P < 0.024) and conventional LGE (P < 0.001). In the swine infarction model, GB-LGE scores for the ability to localize LV scar scores were consistently higher than those of both BB-LGE and conventional-LGE.
GB-LGE imaging improves the ability to identify and localize myocardial scarring compared to both BB-LGE and conventional LGE. Further studies are warranted to histologically validate GB-LGE.