PURPOSE: To compare remote myocardium native T1 in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) and controls without MI and to elucidate the relationship of infarct size and native T1 in the remote myocardium for the prediction of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after MI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 chronic MI (18 anterior MI) patients and 15 age-matched volunteers with normal LV systolic function and no history of MI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T. Native T1 map was performed using a slice interleaved T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Cine MR was acquired to assess LV function and mass. RESULTS: The remote myocardium native T1 time was significantly elevated in patients with prior MI, compared to controls, for both anterior MI and nonanterior MI (anterior MI: 1099 ± 30, nonanterior MI: 1097 ± 39, controls: 1068 ± 25 msec, P < 0.05). Remote myocardium native T1 moderately correlated with LV volume, mass index, and ejection fraction (r = 0.38, 0.50, -0.49, respectively, all P < 0.05). LGE infarct size had a moderate correlation with reduced LV ejection fraction (r = -0.33, P < 0.05), but there was no significant association between native T1 and infarct size. Native T1 time in the remote myocardium was independently associated with reduced LV ejection fraction, after adjusting for age, gender, infarct size, and comorbidity (β = -0.34, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In chronic MI, the severity of LV systolic dysfunction after MI is independently associated with native T1 in the remote myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the remote myocardium may play an important pathophysiological role of post-MI LV dysfunction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1073-1081.
To develop and evaluate an integrated motion correction and dictionary learning (MoDic) technique to accelerate data acquisition for myocardial T1 mapping with improved accuracy.
MoDic integrates motion correction with dictionary learning–based reconstruction. A random undersampling scheme was implemented for slice‐interleaved T1 mapping sequence to allow prospective undersampled data acquisition. Phantom experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of reconstruction on T1 measurement. In vivo T1mappings were acquired in 8 healthy subjects using 6 different acceleration approaches: uniform or randomly undersampled k‐space data with reduction factors (R) of 2, 3, and 4. Uniform undersampled data were reconstructed with SENSE, and randomly undersampled k‐space data were reconstructed using dictionary learning, compressed sensing SENSE, and MoDic methods. Three expert readers subjectively evaluated the quality of T1 maps using a 4‐point scoring system. The agreement between T1 values was assessed by Bland‐Altman analysis.
In the phantom study, the accuracy of T1 measurements improved with increasing reduction factors (31 ± 35 ms, 13 ± 18 ms, and 5 ± 11 ms for reduction factor (R) = 2 to 4, respectively). The image quality of in vivo T1 maps assessed by subjective scoring using MoDic was similar to that of SENSE at R = 2 (P = .61) but improved at R = 3 and 4 (P< .01). The scores of dictionary learning (2.98 ± 0.71, 2.91 ± 0.60, and 2.67 ± 0.71 for R = 2 to 4) and CS‐SENSE (3.32 ± 0.42, 3.05 ± 0.43, and 2.53 ± 0.43) were lower than those of MoDic (3.48 ± 0.46, 3.38 ± 0.52, and 2.9 ± 0.60) for all reduction factors (P < .05 for all).
The MoDic method accelerates data acquisition for myocardial T1 mapping with improved T1 measurement accuracy.
Background: Left atrial ( LA ) enlargement is a marker for increased risk of atrial fibrillation ( AF ). However, LA remodeling is a complex process that is poorly understood, and LA geometric remodeling may also be associated with the development of AF . We sought to determine whether LA spherical remodeling or its temporal change predict late AF recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation ( PVI ). Methods and Results: Two hundred twenty-seven consecutive patients scheduled for their first PVI for paroxysmal or persistent AF who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance before and within 6 months after PVI were retrospectively identified. The LA sphericity index was computed as the ratio of the measured LA maximum volume to the volume of a sphere with maximum LA length diameter. During mean follow-up of 25 months, 88 patients (39%) experienced late recurrence of AF. Multivariable Cox regression analyses identified an increased pre- PVI LA sphericity index as an independent predictor of late AF recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.62, P=0.009). Patients in the highest LA sphericity index tertile were at highest risk of late recurrence (highest versus lowest: 59% versus 28%; P<0.001). The integration of the LA sphericity index to the LA minimum volume index and passive emptying fraction provided important incremental prognostic information for predicting late AF recurrence post PVI (categorical net reclassification improvement, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.69, P=0.001). Conclusions: The assessment of pre- PVI LA geometric remodeling provides incremental prognostic information regarding late AF recurrence and may be useful to identify those for whom PVI has reduced success or for whom more aggressive ablation or medications may be useful.