PURPOSE: To compare remote myocardium native T1 in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) and controls without MI and to elucidate the relationship of infarct size and native T1 in the remote myocardium for the prediction of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after MI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 chronic MI (18 anterior MI) patients and 15 age-matched volunteers with normal LV systolic function and no history of MI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T. Native T1 map was performed using a slice interleaved T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Cine MR was acquired to assess LV function and mass. RESULTS: The remote myocardium native T1 time was significantly elevated in patients with prior MI, compared to controls, for both anterior MI and nonanterior MI (anterior MI: 1099 ± 30, nonanterior MI: 1097 ± 39, controls: 1068 ± 25 msec, P < 0.05). Remote myocardium native T1 moderately correlated with LV volume, mass index, and ejection fraction (r = 0.38, 0.50, -0.49, respectively, all P < 0.05). LGE infarct size had a moderate correlation with reduced LV ejection fraction (r = -0.33, P < 0.05), but there was no significant association between native T1 and infarct size. Native T1 time in the remote myocardium was independently associated with reduced LV ejection fraction, after adjusting for age, gender, infarct size, and comorbidity (β = -0.34, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In chronic MI, the severity of LV systolic dysfunction after MI is independently associated with native T1 in the remote myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the remote myocardium may play an important pathophysiological role of post-MI LV dysfunction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1073-1081.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are increasingly used to convert medical imaging studies into tangible (physical) models of individual patient anatomy, allowing physicians, scientists, and patients an unprecedented level of interaction with medical data. To date, virtually all 3D-printable medical data sets are created using traditional image thresholding, subsequent isosurface extraction, and the generation of .stl surface mesh file formats. These existing methods, however, are highly prone to segmentation artifacts that either over or underexaggerate the features of interest, thus resulting in anatomically inaccurate 3D prints. In addition, they often omit finer detailed structures and require time- and labor-intensive processes to visually verify their accuracy. To circumvent these problems, we present a bitmap-based multimaterial 3D printing workflow for the rapid and highly accurate generation of physical models directly from volumetric data stacks. This workflow employs a thresholding-free approach that bypasses both isosurface creation and traditional mesh slicing algorithms, hence significantly improving speed and accuracy of model creation. In addition, using preprocessed binary bitmap slices as input to multimaterial 3D printers allows for the physical rendering of functional gradients native to volumetric data sets, such as stiffness and opacity, opening the door for the production of biomechanically accurate models.
Low scar-to-blood contrast in late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MRI limits the visualization of scars adjacent to the blood pool. Nulling the blood signal improves scar detection but results in lack of contrast between myocardium and blood, which makes clinical evaluation of LGE images more difficult.
GB-LGE contrast is achieved through partial suppression of the blood signal using T2magnetization preparation between the inversion pulse and acquisition. The timing parameters of GB-LGE sequence are determined by optimizing a cost-function representing the desired tissue contrast. The proposed 3D GB-LGE sequence was evaluated using phantoms, human subjects (n = 45) and a swine model of myocardial infarction (n = 5). Two independent readers subjectively evaluated the image quality and ability to identify and localize scarring in GB-LGE compared to black-blood LGE (BB-LGE) (i.e., with complete blood nulling) and conventional (bright-blood) LGE.
GB-LGE contrast was successfully generated in phantoms and all in-vivo scans. The scar-to-blood contrast was improved in GB-LGE compared to conventional LGE in humans (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and in animals (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. -0.03 ± 0.2). In patients, GB-LGE detected more tissue scarring compared to BB-LGE and conventional LGE. The subjective scores of the GB-LGE ability for localizing LV scar and detecting papillary scar were improved as compared with both BB-LGE (P < 0.024) and conventional LGE (P < 0.001). In the swine infarction model, GB-LGE scores for the ability to localize LV scar scores were consistently higher than those of both BB-LGE and conventional-LGE.
GB-LGE imaging improves the ability to identify and localize myocardial scarring compared to both BB-LGE and conventional LGE. Further studies are warranted to histologically validate GB-LGE.
Myocardial infarction (MI) survivors are at risk of complications including heart failure and malignant arrhythmias.
We undertook serial imaging of swine following MI with the aim of characterizing the longitudinal left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a translational model of ischemia-reperfusion-mediated MI.
Eight Yorkshire swine underwent mid left anterior descending coronary artery balloon occlusion to create an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model of MI.
1.5T Philips Achieva scanner. Serial cardiac MRI was performed at 16, 33, and 62 days post-MI, including cine imaging, native and postcontrast T1 , T2 and dark-blood late gadolinium enhanced (DB-LGE) scar imaging.
Regions of interest were selected on the parametric maps to assess native T1 and T2 in the infarct and in remote tissue. Volume of enhanced tissue, nonenhanced tissue, and gray zone were assessed from DB-LGE imaging. Volumes, cardiac function, and strain were calculated from cine imaging.
Parameters estimated at more than two timepoints were compared with a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Parametric mapping data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model corrected for multiple observations. A result was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.
All animals developed anteroseptal akinesia and hyperenhancement on DB-LGE with a central core of nonenhancing tissue. Mean hyperenhancement volume did not change during the observation period, while the central core contracted from 2.2 ± 1.8 ml at 16 days to 0.08 ± 0.19 ml at 62 days (P = 0.008). Native T1 of ischemic myocardium increased from 1173 ± 93 msec at 16 days to 1309 ± 97 msec at 62 days (P < 0.001). Mean radial and circumferential strain rate magnitude in remote myocardium increased with time from the infarct (P < 0.05).
In this swine model of MI, serial quantitative cardiac MR exams allow characterization of LV remodeling and scar formation.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:
2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.
BACKGROUND: Most patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation fail to utilize the device resulting in increasing societal costs and patient exposure to device morbidity. We sought to determine whether volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) left ventricular (LV) spherical remodeling predicts future ventricular arrhythmias in primary ICD patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Sixty-eight consecutive patients with transthoracic echocardiographic LVEF <35% referred for CMR prior to ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden death were identified. Sphericity index was measured as the ratio of LV end-diastolic volume (from cine short axis stack) to the volume of a sphere with a LV end-diastolic 4-chamber length diameter. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 55 months (interquartile range; 28-88), 15 patients (22%) received appropriate ICD therapy. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard modeling identified increased CMR-derived sphericity index as the strongest independent predictor of appropriate ICD therapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.007). In addition, dichotomized volumetric CMR-derived sphericity index ≥0.57 carried a 4-fold hazard risk for appropriate ICD therapy, controlling for age and LVEF (HR, 4.49; 95% CI, 1.53 to 13.21; p = 0.006). When sphericity index, LVEF and mass index were used in combination, important incremental prognostic information was achieved (net reclassification improvement, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: The combined assessment of LV geometry, mass index and systolic function may provide incremental prognostic information regarding ventricular arrhythmia requiring appropriate ICD therapy in primary prevention patients with reduced LVEF.
Parametric mapping techniques provide a non-invasive tool for quantifying tissue alterations in myocardial disease in those eligible for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Parametric mapping with CMR now permits the routine spatial visualization and quantification of changes in myocardial composition based on changes in T1, T2, and T2*(star) relaxation times and extracellular volume (ECV). These changes include specific disease pathways related to mainly intracellular disturbances of the cardiomyocyte (e.g., iron overload, or glycosphingolipid accumulation in Anderson-Fabry disease); extracellular disturbances in the myocardial interstitium (e.g., myocardial fibrosis or cardiac amyloidosis from accumulation of collagen or amyloid proteins, respectively); or both (myocardial edema with increased intracellular and/or extracellular water). Parametric mapping promises improvements in patient care through advances in quantitative diagnostics, inter- and intra-patient comparability, and relatedly improvements in treatment. There is a multitude of technical approaches and potential applications. This document provides a summary of the existing evidence for the clinical value of parametric mapping in the heart as of mid 2017, and gives recommendations for practical use in different clinical scenarios for scientists, clinicians, and CMR manufacturers.